Prey modify their behavior in response to variation in predation risk, and such modifications can affect trophic processes such as disease transmission. However, variation in predation risk is complex, arising from direct risk from the predator itself and indirect risk due to the environment.
Moreover, direct risk typically stems from multiple predators and varies over timescales (e.g., a predator nearby vs. its seasonal activities). We implemented a field-based experiment to disentangle these sources of risk and relate them to antipredator behavior in rodents. We modeled rodent occurrence and activity as a function of short- and long-term risk from a primary predator, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), long-term risk from a second predator, coyotes (Canis latrans), and environmental variables.
We found that long-term red fox activity strongly reduced rodent occurrence and that cues of nearby red fox presence decreased rodent activity by > 50%. In addition, this activity reduction was dynamic in that varied according to the background level of long-term red fox activity. Importantly, rodents did not respond to environmental variables (moonlight, temperature, and habitat) or long-term coyote activity.
These results bear upon recent work that suggests predators can alter tick–bornedisease dynamics via induced antipredator behavior of rodents, which are hosts for pathogens and ticks. Specifically, our study corroborates the hypothesis that red foxes act as important proximal agents in regulating tick–bornediseases by reducing rodent activity. More generally, this study highlights the need to consider the dynamic nature of prey antipredator response across landscapes with variable long-term predation risk.
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